Difference between revisions of "Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma"

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(Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications))
(Genes and Main Pathways Involved)
 
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==Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)==
 
==Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)==
 
*Clonal rearrangement in T-Cell receptor gene in 75-90% of AITL cases<ref name=":7">{{Cite journal|last=Ad|first=Attygalle|last2=Ss|first2=Chuang|last3=Tc|first3=Diss|last4=Mq|first4=Du|last5=Pg|first5=Isaacson|last6=A|first6=Dogan|date=2007|title=Distinguishing angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma from peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, using morphology, immunophenotype and molecular genetics|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17448026/|language=en|pmid=17448026}}</ref> <ref>{{Cite journal|last=L|first=de Leval|last2=C|first2=Gisselbrecht|last3=P|first3=Gaulard|date=2010|title=Advances in the understanding and management of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19961485/|language=en|pmid=19961485}}</ref><ref name=":8">{{Cite journal|last=Bt|first=Tan|last2=Ra|first2=Warnke|last3=Da|first3=Arber|date=2006|title=The frequency of B- and T-cell gene rearrangements and epstein-barr virus in T-cell lymphomas: a comparison between angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified with and without associated B-cell proliferations|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16931587/|language=en|doi=10.2353/jmoldx.2006.060016|pmc=PMC1867616|pmid=16931587}}</ref>
 
*Clonal rearrangement in immunoglobulin genes in 25-30% of AITL cases<ref name=":7" /><ref name=":8" />
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
!Chromosomal Rearrangement!!Genes in Fusion (5’ or 3’ Segments)!!Pathogenic Derivative!!Prevalence
+
!Chromosomal Rearrangement!!Genes in Fusion (5’ or 3’ Segments)!!Pathogenic Derivative!!Reference
 
|-
 
|-
|t(5;9)(q33;q22)||5'ITK / 3'SYK||der(5); der(9)||Infrequent<ref>{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Streubel|last2=U|first2=Vinatzer|last3=M|first3=Willheim|last4=M|first4=Raderer|last5=A|first5=Chott|date=2006|title=Novel t(5;9)(q33;q22) fuses ITK to SYK in unspecified peripheral T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16341044/|language=en|pmid=16341044}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite journal|last=M|first=Wang|last2=S|first2=Zhang|last3=Ss|first3=Chuang|last4=M|first4=Ashton-Key|last5=E|first5=Ochoa|last6=N|first6=Bolli|last7=G|first7=Vassiliou|last8=Z|first8=Gao|last9=Mq|first9=Du|date=2017|title=Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma: novel molecular insights by mutation profiling|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28148900/|language=en|doi=10.18632/oncotarget.14846|pmc=PMC5392284|pmid=28148900}}</ref>
+
|t(5;9)(q33;q22)||''ITK'' / ''SYK''||der(5); der(9)||<ref>{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Streubel|last2=U|first2=Vinatzer|last3=M|first3=Willheim|last4=M|first4=Raderer|last5=A|first5=Chott|date=2006|title=Novel t(5;9)(q33;q22) fuses ITK to SYK in unspecified peripheral T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16341044/|language=en|pmid=16341044}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite journal|last=M|first=Wang|last2=S|first2=Zhang|last3=Ss|first3=Chuang|last4=M|first4=Ashton-Key|last5=E|first5=Ochoa|last6=N|first6=Bolli|last7=G|first7=Vassiliou|last8=Z|first8=Gao|last9=Mq|first9=Du|date=2017|title=Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma: novel molecular insights by mutation profiling|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28148900/|language=en|doi=10.18632/oncotarget.14846|pmc=PMC5392284|pmid=28148900}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|t(7;14)(q35;q32.1)
 
|t(7;14)(q35;q32.1)
|TRB/TCL1A
+
|''TRB/TCL1A''
 
|der(7); der(14)
 
|der(7); der(14)
 
|<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Mf|first=Cosimi|last2=I|first2=Casagranda|last3=G|first3=Ghiazza|last4=G|first4=Rossi|last5=P|first5=Galvani|date=1990|title=Rearrangements on chromosomes 7 and 14 with breakpoints at 7q35 and 14q11 in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and IBL-like T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2284141/|language=en|pmid=2284141}}</ref>
 
|<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Mf|first=Cosimi|last2=I|first2=Casagranda|last3=G|first3=Ghiazza|last4=G|first4=Rossi|last5=P|first5=Galvani|date=1990|title=Rearrangements on chromosomes 7 and 14 with breakpoints at 7q35 and 14q11 in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and IBL-like T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2284141/|language=en|pmid=2284141}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|t(14;14)(q11;q32.1) / inv(14)(q11q32.1)
 
|t(14;14)(q11;q32.1) / inv(14)(q11q32.1)
|TRA-TRD/TCL1A
+
|''TRA-TRD/TCL1A''
 
|der(14)
 
|der(14)
 
|<ref>{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Schlegelberger|last2=A|first2=Feller|last3=A|first3=Himmler|last4=W|first4=Grote|date=1990|title=Inv(14)(q11q32) in one of four different clones in a case of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2293883/|language=en|pmid=2293883}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=E|first=Leich|last2=E|first2=Haralambieva|last3=A|first3=Zettl|last4=A|first4=Chott|last5=T|first5=Rüdiger|last6=S|first6=Höller|last7=Hk|first7=Müller-Hermelink|last8=G|first8=Ott|last9=A|first9=Rosenwald|date=2007|title=Tissue microarray-based screening for chromosomal breakpoints affecting the T-cell receptor gene loci in mature T-cell lymphomas|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17582237/|language=en|pmid=17582237}}</ref>
 
|<ref>{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Schlegelberger|last2=A|first2=Feller|last3=A|first3=Himmler|last4=W|first4=Grote|date=1990|title=Inv(14)(q11q32) in one of four different clones in a case of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2293883/|language=en|pmid=2293883}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=E|first=Leich|last2=E|first2=Haralambieva|last3=A|first3=Zettl|last4=A|first4=Chott|last5=T|first5=Rüdiger|last6=S|first6=Höller|last7=Hk|first7=Müller-Hermelink|last8=G|first8=Ott|last9=A|first9=Rosenwald|date=2007|title=Tissue microarray-based screening for chromosomal breakpoints affecting the T-cell receptor gene loci in mature T-cell lymphomas|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17582237/|language=en|pmid=17582237}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
|chr(2)(q33.2)
 +
|''CTLA4/CD28''
 +
|der(2)
 +
|<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hy|first=Yoo|last2=P|first2=Kim|last3=Ws|first3=Kim|last4=Sh|first4=Lee|last5=S|first5=Kim|last6=Sy|first6=Kang|last7=Hy|first7=Jang|last8=Je|first8=Lee|last9=J|first9=Kim|date=2016|title=Frequent CTLA4-CD28 gene fusion in diverse types of T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26819049/|language=en|doi=10.3324/haematol.2015.139253|pmc=PMC5013939|pmid=26819049}}</ref>
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
 
==Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns==
 
==Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns==
  
Put your text here
+
*Clonal rearrangement in T-Cell receptor gene in 75-90% of AITL cases<ref name=":7">{{Cite journal|last=Ad|first=Attygalle|last2=Ss|first2=Chuang|last3=Tc|first3=Diss|last4=Mq|first4=Du|last5=Pg|first5=Isaacson|last6=A|first6=Dogan|date=2007|title=Distinguishing angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma from peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, using morphology, immunophenotype and molecular genetics|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17448026/|language=en|pmid=17448026}}</ref> <ref>{{Cite journal|last=L|first=de Leval|last2=C|first2=Gisselbrecht|last3=P|first3=Gaulard|date=2010|title=Advances in the understanding and management of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19961485/|language=en|pmid=19961485}}</ref><ref name=":8">{{Cite journal|last=Bt|first=Tan|last2=Ra|first2=Warnke|last3=Da|first3=Arber|date=2006|title=The frequency of B- and T-cell gene rearrangements and epstein-barr virus in T-cell lymphomas: a comparison between angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified with and without associated B-cell proliferations|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16931587/|language=en|doi=10.2353/jmoldx.2006.060016|pmc=PMC1867616|pmid=16931587}}</ref>
 +
*Clonal rearrangement in immunoglobulin genes in 25-30% of AITL cases<ref name=":7" /><ref name=":8" />
  
 
==Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH==
 
==Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH==
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{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
!Chromosome Number!!Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH!!Prevalence
+
!Chromosome Number!!Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH!!Reference
 
|-
 
|-
|3,5,21||Trisomy||up to 90%<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Schlegelberger|last2=Y|first2=Zhang|last3=K|first3=Weber-Matthiesen|last4=W|first4=Grote|date=1994|title=Detection of aberrant clones in nearly all cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia-type T-cell lymphoma by combined interphase and metaphase cytogenetics|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7919378/|language=en|pmid=7919378}}</ref>
+
|3,5,21||Trisomy||<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last=B|first=Schlegelberger|last2=Y|first2=Zhang|last3=K|first3=Weber-Matthiesen|last4=W|first4=Grote|date=1994|title=Detection of aberrant clones in nearly all cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia-type T-cell lymphoma by combined interphase and metaphase cytogenetics|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7919378/|language=en|pmid=7919378}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
|X||Gain||up to 90%<ref name=":1" />
+
|X||Gain||<ref name=":1" />
 
|-
 
|-
 
|6q
 
|6q
 
|Loss
 
|Loss
|up to 90%<ref name=":1" />
+
|<ref name=":1" />
 
|-
 
|-
 
|22q
 
|22q
Line 157: Line 160:
 
!Gene!!Mutation!!Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other!!Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger)!!Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
 
!Gene!!Mutation!!Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other!!Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger)!!Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
 
|-
 
|-
|''IDH2''||R172S; R172G;R172K||Tumor Suppressor||LOF||20-30%<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ra|first=Cairns|last2=J|first2=Iqbal|last3=F|first3=Lemonnier|last4=C|first4=Kucuk|last5=L|first5=de Leval|last6=Jp|first6=Jais|last7=M|first7=Parrens|last8=A|first8=Martin|last9=L|first9=Xerri|date=2012|title=IDH2 mutations are frequent in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22215888/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2011-11-391748|pmc=PMC3293643|pmid=22215888}}</ref><ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last=O|first=Odejide|last2=O|first2=Weigert|last3=Aa|first3=Lane|last4=D|first4=Toscano|last5=Ma|first5=Lunning|last6=N|first6=Kopp|last7=S|first7=Kim|last8=D|first8=van Bodegom|last9=S|first9=Bolla|date=2014|title=A targeted mutational landscape of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24345752/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2013-10-531509|pmc=PMC4260974|pmid=24345752}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=C|first=Wang|last2=Tw|first2=McKeithan|last3=Q|first3=Gong|last4=W|first4=Zhang|last5=A|first5=Bouska|last6=A|first6=Rosenwald|last7=Rd|first7=Gascoyne|last8=X|first8=Wu|last9=J|first9=Wang|date=2015|title=IDH2R172 mutations define a unique subgroup of patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26268241/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2015-05-644591|pmc=PMC4600014|pmid=26268241}}</ref>
+
|''IDH2''||R172S; R172G;R172K||Tumor Suppressor||LOF||20-30%<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ra|first=Cairns|last2=J|first2=Iqbal|last3=F|first3=Lemonnier|last4=C|first4=Kucuk|last5=L|first5=de Leval|last6=Jp|first6=Jais|last7=M|first7=Parrens|last8=A|first8=Martin|last9=L|first9=Xerri|date=2012|title=IDH2 mutations are frequent in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22215888/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2011-11-391748|pmc=PMC3293643|pmid=22215888}}</ref><ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last=O|first=Odejide|last2=O|first2=Weigert|last3=Aa|first3=Lane|last4=D|first4=Toscano|last5=Ma|first5=Lunning|last6=N|first6=Kopp|last7=S|first7=Kim|last8=D|first8=van Bodegom|last9=S|first9=Bolla|date=2014|title=A targeted mutational landscape of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24345752/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2013-10-531509|pmc=PMC4260974|pmid=24345752}}</ref><ref name=":11">{{Cite journal|last=C|first=Wang|last2=Tw|first2=McKeithan|last3=Q|first3=Gong|last4=W|first4=Zhang|last5=A|first5=Bouska|last6=A|first6=Rosenwald|last7=Rd|first7=Gascoyne|last8=X|first8=Wu|last9=J|first9=Wang|date=2015|title=IDH2R172 mutations define a unique subgroup of patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26268241/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2015-05-644591|pmc=PMC4600014|pmid=26268241}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''TET2''
 
|''TET2''
Line 163: Line 166:
 
|Tumor Suppressor
 
|Tumor Suppressor
 
|LOF
 
|LOF
|50-80%<ref>{{Cite journal|last=F|first=Lemonnier|last2=L|first2=Couronné|last3=M|first3=Parrens|last4=Jp|first4=Jaïs|last5=M|first5=Travert|last6=L|first6=Lamant|last7=O|first7=Tournillac|last8=T|first8=Rousset|last9=B|first9=Fabiani|date=2012|title=Recurrent TET2 mutations in peripheral T-cell lymphomas correlate with TFH-like features and adverse clinical parameters|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22760778/|language=en|pmid=22760778}}</ref><ref name=":5" />
+
|50-80%<ref name=":12">{{Cite journal|last=F|first=Lemonnier|last2=L|first2=Couronné|last3=M|first3=Parrens|last4=Jp|first4=Jaïs|last5=M|first5=Travert|last6=L|first6=Lamant|last7=O|first7=Tournillac|last8=T|first8=Rousset|last9=B|first9=Fabiani|date=2012|title=Recurrent TET2 mutations in peripheral T-cell lymphomas correlate with TFH-like features and adverse clinical parameters|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22760778/|language=en|pmid=22760778}}</ref><ref name=":5" />
 
|-
 
|-
 
|''DNMT3A''
 
|''DNMT3A''
Line 193: Line 196:
 
|Oncogene
 
|Oncogene
 
|GOF
 
|GOF
|up to 5-10%<ref name=":3" /><ref>{{Cite journal|last=J|first=Rohr|last2=S|first2=Guo|last3=J|first3=Huo|last4=A|first4=Bouska|last5=C|first5=Lachel|last6=Y|first6=Li|last7=Pd|first7=Simone|last8=W|first8=Zhang|last9=Q|first9=Gong|date=2016|title=Recurrent activating mutations of CD28 in peripheral T-cell lymphomas|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26719098/|language=en|doi=10.1038/leu.2015.357|pmc=PMC5688878|pmid=26719098}}</ref>
+
|up to 5-10%<ref name=":3" /><ref name=":13">{{Cite journal|last=J|first=Rohr|last2=S|first2=Guo|last3=J|first3=Huo|last4=A|first4=Bouska|last5=C|first5=Lachel|last6=Y|first6=Li|last7=Pd|first7=Simone|last8=W|first8=Zhang|last9=Q|first9=Gong|date=2016|title=Recurrent activating mutations of CD28 in peripheral T-cell lymphomas|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26719098/|language=en|doi=10.1038/leu.2015.357|pmc=PMC5688878|pmid=26719098}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|TNFRSF21
 
|TNFRSF21
Line 216: Line 219:
 
==Epigenomics (Methylation)==
 
==Epigenomics (Methylation)==
  
Put your text here
+
*Frequent mutation in epigenetic modifiers like: <ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5" /><ref name=":11" /><ref name=":12" />
 +
**''IDH2'' (20-30%)
 +
**''TET2'' (50-80%)
 +
**''DNMT3A'' (20-30%)
  
 
==Genes and Main Pathways Involved==
 
==Genes and Main Pathways Involved==
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+
 +
!Molecular Features
 +
!Pathway
 +
!Pathophysiologic Outcome
 +
|-
 +
|''FYN'', ''PLCG1'', and ''CD28'' mutations
 +
|T-cell receptor signaling pathway<ref name=":4" /><ref name=":6" /><ref name=":3" /><ref name=":13" />
 +
|Increased proliferation and survival
 +
|-
 +
|''IDH2'', ''TET2'', and ''DNMT3A'' mutations
 +
|Histone modification and chromatin remodeling<ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5" /><ref name=":11" /><ref name=":12" />
 +
|Abnormal gene expression program
 +
|}
  
Put your text here
+
*
  
 
==Diagnostic Testing Methods==
 
==Diagnostic Testing Methods==
  
Put your text here
+
*Clinical, morphological, and immunophenotypic findings are generally sufficient for diagnosis
 +
*''IDH2'' R172 mutations are specific to AITL
 +
*T-Cell receptor and immunoglobulin genes rearrangement detection by karyotyping and FISH analysis
  
 
==Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)==
 
==Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)==
  
* Overall prognosis is poor<ref name=":9">{{Cite journal|last=N|first=Mourad|last2=N|first2=Mounier|last3=J|first3=Brière|last4=E|first4=Raffoux|last5=A|first5=Delmer|last6=A|first6=Feller|last7=Cj|first7=Meijer|last8=Jf|first8=Emile|last9=R|first9=Bouabdallah|date=2008|title=Clinical, biologic, and pathologic features in 157 patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma treated within the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) trials|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18292286/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2007-08-105759|pmc=PMC2343588|pmid=18292286}}</ref><ref name=":10">{{Cite journal|last=J|first=Vose|last2=J|first2=Armitage|last3=D|first3=Weisenburger|date=2008|title=International peripheral T-cell and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma study: pathology findings and clinical outcomes|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18626005/|language=en|pmid=18626005}}</ref>
+
*Overall prognosis is poor<ref name=":9">{{Cite journal|last=N|first=Mourad|last2=N|first2=Mounier|last3=J|first3=Brière|last4=E|first4=Raffoux|last5=A|first5=Delmer|last6=A|first6=Feller|last7=Cj|first7=Meijer|last8=Jf|first8=Emile|last9=R|first9=Bouabdallah|date=2008|title=Clinical, biologic, and pathologic features in 157 patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma treated within the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) trials|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18292286/|language=en|doi=10.1182/blood-2007-08-105759|pmc=PMC2343588|pmid=18292286}}</ref><ref name=":10">{{Cite journal|last=J|first=Vose|last2=J|first2=Armitage|last3=D|first3=Weisenburger|date=2008|title=International peripheral T-cell and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma study: pathology findings and clinical outcomes|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18626005/|language=en|pmid=18626005}}</ref>
* Median survival < 3 years, even with aggressive treatment<ref name=":9" /><ref name=":10" />
+
*Median survival < 3 years, even with aggressive treatment<ref name=":9" /><ref name=":10" />
* Male sex, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and anemia adversely affect the survival<ref name=":9" />
+
*Male sex, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and anemia adversely affect the survival<ref name=":9" />
  
 
'''Suggested Treatment Regimens based on NCCN Guideline Version 1.2020 (TCEL-B 3 of 5)'''
 
'''Suggested Treatment Regimens based on NCCN Guideline Version 1.2020 (TCEL-B 3 of 5)'''

Latest revision as of 21:16, 30 July 2020

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Primary Author(s)*

Sara Akhavanfard, M.D., Ph.D.

Ruthann Pfau, Ph.D., FACMG

Cancer Category/Type

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma and Other Nodal Lymphomas of T Follicular Helper Cell Origin

Cancer Sub-Classification / Subtype

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma (AITL)

Definition / Description of Disease

  • A neoplasm of mature T follicular helper (TFH) cells
  • Characterized by systemic disease and a polymorphous infiltrate involving lymph nodes
  • Have prominent proliferation of high endothelial venules (HEVs) and folicular dentritic cells (FDCs)
  • EBV-positive B cells are nearly always present
  • Clinically aggressive and seen mainly in older adults

Synonyms / Terminology

  • Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma
  • Angioimmunoblastic Lymphadenopathy with Dysproteinaemia
  • Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathy
  • Lymphogranulomatosis X

Epidemiology / Prevalence

  • Occurs in middle-aged and elderly individuals[1]
  • Males >> Females[1]
  • One of the most common specific subtypes of PTCL[2][3][4]
    • 15-30% of non-cutaneous T-cell lymphomas
    • 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas

Clinical Features[5][6][7][8]

Sign and Symptoms

  • Advanced-stage disease with systemic symptoms
  • Generalized lymphadenopathy
  • Hepathosplenomegaly
  • Polyclonal hypergammagloulinaemia
  • Skin rash, often with pruritus
  • Pleural effusion
  • Arthritis
  • Ascities

Laboratory Findings

  • Circulating Immune Complexes
  • Cold agglutinins with haemolytic anemia
  • Positive rheumatoid factor
  • Positive anti-smooth muscle antibody

Sites of Involvement

  • Primary site: Lymph node
  • Other involved sites: Spleen, Liver, Skin,and Bone marrow[9][10][11][12]

Morphologic Features[13][14]

Pattern-1 (Early involvement)

  • Bare, hyperplastic follicles, with Well-formed germinal centers, often lacking well-defined mantle cuffs[15]
  • Paracortical expansion
  • Marked Vascular Proliferation, associated with perifollicular or atypical lymphoid cells

Pattern-2

  • Remnant of follicles with regressive changes
  • Readily identified neoplastic cells in the expanded paracortex
  • Marked perifollicular expansion of clear cells

Pattern-3

  • Totally or sub-totally effacement of normal architecture
  • Marked vascular proliferation
  • Aggregates of atypical lymphoid cells

Immunophenotype[16][17][18][19][20]

Finding Marker
Positive (universal) CD3, CD2, CD5, CD4, CD10, CXCL13, ICOS, BCL6, PD1(CD279)
Positive (extrafollicular pattern) CD21, CD23, CD35

Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)

Chromosomal Rearrangement Genes in Fusion (5’ or 3’ Segments) Pathogenic Derivative Reference
t(5;9)(q33;q22) ITK / SYK der(5); der(9) [21][22]
t(7;14)(q35;q32.1) TRB/TCL1A der(7); der(14) [23]
t(14;14)(q11;q32.1) / inv(14)(q11q32.1) TRA-TRD/TCL1A der(14) [24][25]
chr(2)(q33.2) CTLA4/CD28 der(2) [26]

Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns

  • Clonal rearrangement in T-Cell receptor gene in 75-90% of AITL cases[27] [28][29]
  • Clonal rearrangement in immunoglobulin genes in 25-30% of AITL cases[27][29]

Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH

Chromosome Number Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH Reference
3,5,21 Trisomy [30]
X Gain [30]
6q Loss [30]
22q Gain [31]
19 Gain [31]
11q13 Gain [31]
13q Loss [31]

Gene Mutations (SNV/INDEL)

Gene Mutation Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger) Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
IDH2 R172S; R172G;R172K Tumor Suppressor LOF 20-30%[32][22][33][34]
TET2 Widely distributed Tumor Suppressor LOF 50-80%[35][33]
DNMT3A W305* Tumor Suppressor LOF 20-30%[22][33]
RHOA G17V; G17E; C16R; T19I; D120Y Tumor Suppressor LOF 60-70%[36][37][38]
FYN L174R; R176C; Y531H Oncogene GOF up to 5-10%[39][38]
PLCG1 S345F; G869E Oncogene GOF up to 5-10%[39][22]
CD28 D124V; D124E; T195P Oncogene GOF up to 5-10%[39][40]
TNFRSF21 S428fs*S1 Tumor Suppressor LOF [22]
CCND3 Q280* Tumor Suppressor LOF [22]
SAMSN1 R153* Tumor Suppressor LOF [22]

Epigenomics (Methylation)

  • Frequent mutation in epigenetic modifiers like: [22][33][34][35]
    • IDH2 (20-30%)
    • TET2 (50-80%)
    • DNMT3A (20-30%)

Genes and Main Pathways Involved

Molecular Features Pathway Pathophysiologic Outcome
FYN, PLCG1, and CD28 mutations T-cell receptor signaling pathway[22][38][39][40] Increased proliferation and survival
IDH2, TET2, and DNMT3A mutations Histone modification and chromatin remodeling[22][33][34][35] Abnormal gene expression program

Diagnostic Testing Methods

  • Clinical, morphological, and immunophenotypic findings are generally sufficient for diagnosis
  • IDH2 R172 mutations are specific to AITL
  • T-Cell receptor and immunoglobulin genes rearrangement detection by karyotyping and FISH analysis

Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)

  • Overall prognosis is poor[41][42]
  • Median survival < 3 years, even with aggressive treatment[41][42]
  • Male sex, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and anemia adversely affect the survival[41]

Suggested Treatment Regimens based on NCCN Guideline Version 1.2020 (TCEL-B 3 of 5)

Second-line therapy (with intention to transplant) and subsequent therapy:

  • Clinical Trial preferred
  • Preferred regimens
    • Single Agents (alphabetical order)
      • Belinostat
      • Brentuximab Vedotin for CD30+ AITL
      • Romidepsin
    • Combination Regimens
      • DHAP(Dexamethasone, Cisplatin, Cytarabine)
      • ESHAP (Etoposide, Methylprednisolone, Citarabine, Cisplatin)
      • GDP (Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, Cisplatin)
      • GemOx (Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin)
      • ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide)
  • Other recommended regimens
    • Single Agents (alphabetical order)
      • Bendamustine
      • Gemcitabine
      • Lenalidomide
      • Pralatrexate

Second-line or initial palliative intent therapy (no intention to transplant) and subsequent therapy:

  • Clinical Trial preferred
  • Preferred regimens
    • Single Agents (alphabetical order)
      • Belinostat
      • Brentuximab Vedotin for CD30+ AITL
      • Romidepsin
  • Other recommended regimen (alphabetical order)
    • Alemtuzumab
    • Bendamustine
    • Bertezomib (categort 2B)
    • Cyclophosphamide and/or Etoposide (IV or PO)
    • Cyclosporine
    • Gemcitabine
    • Lenalidomide
    • Pralatrexate
    • Radiation therapy

Other Information

N/A

Links

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma and Other Nodal Lymphomas of T Follicular Helper Cell Origin

References

(use "Cite" icon at top of page)

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EXAMPLE Book

  1. Arber DA, et al., (2017). Acute myeloid leukaemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities, in World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, Revised 4th edition. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Arber DA, Hasserjian RP, Le Beau MM, Orazi A, and Siebert R, Editors. IARC Press: Lyon, France, p129-171.

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