Difference between revisions of "Polycythemia Vera (PV)"

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==Primary Author(s)*==
 
==Primary Author(s)*==
  
Gokce A. Toruner, MD,PhD
+
Gokce A. Toruner, MD, PhD
 +
 
 +
UT MD Anderson Cancer Center
  
 
__TOC__
 
__TOC__
Line 8: Line 10:
 
==Cancer Category/Type==
 
==Cancer Category/Type==
  
Myeloproliferative neoplasms
+
[[Myeloproliferative neoplasms]]
  
 
==Cancer Sub-Classification / Subtype==
 
==Cancer Sub-Classification / Subtype==
Line 14: Line 16:
 
Polycythemia Vera
 
Polycythemia Vera
  
==Definition / Description of Disease==
+
==Definition / Description of Disease <ref name=":0">Thiele J, Kvasnicka HM, Orazi A, Tefferi A, Birgegard G, Barbui T (2017). Polycythemia Vera, in World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4<sup>th</sup>edition. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Editors. IARC Press: Lyon, France, p39-43</ref>==
  
* Polycythemia Vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN).
+
*Polycythemia Vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN).
* Increased red blood cell (RBC) production independent of normal regulation of erythropoiesis.
+
*Increased red blood cell (RBC) production independent of normal regulation of erythropoiesis.
* Proliferation of other myeloid cells such as granulocytes and megakaryocytes are also frequently observed (panmyelosis).
+
*Proliferation of other myeloid cells such as granulocytes and megakaryocytes are also frequently observed (panmyelosis).
* Very high majority of PV patients have ''JAK2'' V617F or ''JAK2'' exon 12 mutations.
+
*Very high majority of PV patients have ''JAK2'' V617F or ''JAK2'' exon 12 mutations.
* Phases of PV
+
*Phases of PV
** Polycythemic phase: Early phase characterized by increased hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels and increased RBC mass.
+
**Polycythemic phase: Early phase characterized by increased hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels and increased RBC mass.
** Post polycythemic myelofibrosis: Later phase associated bone marrow fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis (and cytopenias) and extramedullary hematopoiesis.
+
**Post polycythemic myelofibrosis: Later phase associated bone marrow fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis (and cytopenias) and extramedullary hematopoiesis.<ref name=":0" />
  
 
==Synonyms / Terminology==
 
==Synonyms / Terminology==
  
Put your text here
+
*Polycythemia rubra vera
 +
*Proliferative polycythemia
 +
*Chronic erythema
 +
*Maladie de Vaquez
  
 
==Epidemiology / Prevalence==
 
==Epidemiology / Prevalence==
  
Put your text here
+
*Incidence rate: 1.8/100,000 in the US.
 +
*Slight male predominance.
 +
*Median age of diagnosis: 60 years, but it can occur any age.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rm|first=Shallis|last2=R|first2=Wang|last3=A|first3=Davidoff|last4=X|first4=Ma|last5=Na|first5=Podoltsev|last6=Am|first6=Zeidan|date=2020|title=Epidemiology of the classical myeloproliferative neoplasms: The four corners of an expansive and complex map|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32517877/|language=en|pmid=32517877}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Clinical Features<ref name=":0" /><ref>Tefferi A. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of polycythemia vera https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-polycythemia-vera (last accessed 8/1/2020)</ref>==
 +
 
 +
*Insidious onset  of disease and PV is often discovered incidentally due to increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in a routine CBC
 +
*Non-specific symptoms due to hypertension and vascular issues resulting from increased viscosity of the blood
 +
*Frequent complaints: Headache, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, visual disturbances, pruritus, erythromelalgia
 +
*Frequent physical examination findings: Splenomegaly, facial plethora
 +
*About 20% of the cases have documented complications of arterial and venous thrombosis such as myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular events, deep venous thrombosis, and hepatic portal vein thrombosis.
 +
*May evolve into myelofibrosis, MDS or post PV blast phase (formerly known as acute leukemia)
 +
 
 +
==Sites of Involvement <ref name=":0" />==
  
==Clinical Features==
+
*Bone marrow is the major affected site.
 +
*Splenic and hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis can be observed in later stages.
 +
*Any organ can be damaged due to vascular involvement.
  
Put your text here
+
==Morphologic Features <ref name=":0" />==
  
==Sites of Involvement==
+
Polycythemic phase
  
Put your text here
+
*Hypercellularity (notable in subcortical marrow space)
 +
*Panmyelosis (with marked erythroid and megakaryocytic predominance)
 +
*Pleomorphic megakaryocytes
 +
*Decreased often absent iron deposits
  
==Morphologic Features==
+
Post polycythemic myelofibrosis phase
  
Put your text here
+
*Grade 2-3 BM fibrosis
 +
*Decreased erythropoiesis (anemia) and granulopoiesis
 +
*Manifestation of myeloid metaplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis: Leukoeryhroblastosis, teardrop RBC, splenomegaly
  
 
==Immunophenotype==
 
==Immunophenotype==
  
Put your text here and/or fill in the table
+
No specific immunophenotypic characteristics
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
!Finding!!Marker
 
|-
 
|Positive (universal)||EXAMPLE CD1
 
|-
 
|Positive (subset)||EXAMPLE CD2
 
|-
 
|Negative (universal)||EXAMPLE CD3
 
|-
 
|Negative (subset)||EXAMPLE CD4
 
|}
 
  
 
==Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)==
 
==Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)==
  
Put your text here and/or fill in the table
+
None
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
!Chromosomal Rearrangement!!Genes in Fusion (5’ or 3’ Segments)!!Pathogenic Derivative!!Prevalence
 
|-
 
|EXAMPLE t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)||EXAMPLE 3'ABL1 / 5'BCR||EXAMPLE der(22)||EXAMPLE 5%
 
|-
 
|EXAMPLE t(8;21)(q22;q22)||EXAMPLE 5'RUNX1 / 3'RUNXT1||EXAMPLE der(8)||EXAMPLE 5%
 
|}
 
 
 
==Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns==
 
==Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns==
  
Put your text here
+
Cytogenetic abnormalities is present about 20% of the cases (see genomic gain/loss/LOH section). Associated with progression and adverse prognosis<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last=A|first=Tefferi|last2=T|first2=Barbui|date=2019|title=Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2019 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification and management|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30281843/|language=en|pmid=30281843}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=G|first=Tang|last2=Je|first2=Hidalgo Lopez|last3=Sa|first3=Wang|last4=S|first4=Hu|last5=J|first5=Ma|last6=S|first6=Pierce|last7=W|first7=Zuo|last8=Aa|first8=Carballo-Zarate|last9=Cc|first9=Yin|date=2017|title=Characteristics and clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in polycythemia vera|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28473622/|language=en|doi=10.3324/haematol.2017.165795|pmc=PMC5685217|pmid=28473622}}</ref>.
  
 
==Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH==
 
==Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH==
  
Put your text here and/or fill in the table
+
Frequent cytogenetic abnormalities are listed below<ref name=":0" />.
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
Line 86: Line 88:
 
!Chromosome Number!!Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH!!Region
 
!Chromosome Number!!Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH!!Region
 
|-
 
|-
|EXAMPLE 8||EXAMPLE Gain||EXAMPLE chr8:0-1000000
+
|1||Gain||1q
 
|-
 
|-
|EXAMPLE 7||EXAMPLE Loss||EXAMPLE chr7:0-1000000
+
|8||Gain||+8
 +
|-
 +
|9
 +
|Gain
 +
| +9
 +
|-
 +
|20
 +
|Loss
 +
|del(20q)
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
==Gene Mutations (SNV/INDEL)==
+
==Gene Mutations (SNV/INDEL)<ref name=":2">{{Cite journal|last=W|first=Vainchenker|last2=R|first2=Kralovics|date=2017|title=Genetic basis and molecular pathophysiology of classical myeloproliferative neoplasms|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28028029/|language=en|pmid=28028029}}</ref>==
 +
 
 +
*''JAK2'' V617F mutations
 +
**Highly frequent, but not diagnostic for PV, as more than half of Essential Throbocythemia and Primary Myelofibrosis  have ''JAK2'' V617F.
 +
**This mutation is located in the pseudokinase domain of the ''JAK2'' protein
  
Put your text here and/or fill in the tables
+
*''JAK''2 exon 12 mutations
 +
**Located in the so called linked region (amino acids 536- 547) between the SRC2 homology (SH2) and pseudokinase domains.
 +
**Most of these mutations are in frame indels <ref name=":2" />.
 +
**Associated with younger age, increased hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels and lower WBC compated to cases with JAK2 ''AK2'' V617F mutations <ref name=":3">NCCN guidelines for myefoloproliferative neoplasms https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/mpn.pdf (last accessed 8/1/2020)</ref>
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
Line 99: Line 116:
 
!Gene!!Mutation!!Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other!!Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger)!!Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
 
!Gene!!Mutation!!Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other!!Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger)!!Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
 
|-
 
|-
|EXAMPLE TP53||EXAMPLE R273H||EXAMPLE Tumor Suppressor||EXAMPLE LOF||EXAMPLE 20%
+
|''JAK2''||V617F||Oncogene||GOF; Driver||95-97%
 +
|-
 +
|''JAK2''
 +
|Exon 12 mutations
 +
|Oncogene
 +
|GOF; Driver
 +
|3%
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
 
===Other Mutations===
 
===Other Mutations===
 +
Most frequent mutations other than JAK2 in PV are ''TET2'' and ''ASXL1'' <ref name=":4">{{Cite journal|last=A|first=Tefferi|last2=Tl|first2=Lasho|last3=P|first3=Guglielmelli|last4=Cm|first4=Finke|last5=G|first5=Rotunno|last6=Y|first6=Elala|last7=A|first7=Pacilli|last8=Ca|first8=Hanson|last9=A|first9=Pancrazzi|date=2016|title=Targeted deep sequencing in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29296692/|language=en|doi=10.1182/bloodadvances.2016000216|pmc=PMC5744051|pmid=29296692}}</ref><ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last=A|first=Tefferi|last2=P|first2=Guglielmelli|last3=Tl|first3=Lasho|last4=G|first4=Coltro|last5=Cm|first5=Finke|last6=Gg|first6=Loscocco|last7=B|first7=Sordi|last8=N|first8=Szuber|last9=G|first9=Rotunno|date=2020|title=Mutation-enhanced international prognostic systems for essential thrombocythaemia and polycythaemia vera|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31945802/|language=en|pmid=31945802}}</ref>.
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Type!!Gene/Region/Other
 
!Type!!Gene/Region/Other
 
|-
 
|-
|Concomitant Mutations||EXAMPLE IDH1 R123H
+
|Concomitant Mutations||''TET2, ASXL1, SH2B3, CEBPA, ZRSR2,S3FB1,CSF3R,KITSRSF2,IDH2,DNMT3A,SUZ12.SETB1,RUNX1.CBL,TP53,FLT3'' <ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5" />
|-
 
|Secondary Mutations||EXAMPLE Trisomy 7
 
|-
 
|Mutually Exclusive||EXAMPLE EGFR Amplification
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Epigenomics (Methylation)==
 
==Epigenomics (Methylation)==
  
Put your text here
+
Methylation of promoter regions has not been documented, but mutations of genes important in epigenetic regulation are observed<ref name=":4" /><ref name=":5" />
  
 
==Genes and Main Pathways Involved==
 
==Genes and Main Pathways Involved==
  
Put your text here
+
*''JAK2'' is physically bound to homodimeric receptors: EPOR, MPL and G-CSFR and act as the catalytic part of these receptors upon the binding of the cytokine to the receptor.
 +
*J''AK2'' V617F mutation results in non-cytokine dependent constitutive phosphorylation and activation of the down-stream STAT molecules and Pl3K and MAPK pathways<ref name=":2" />.
  
 
==Diagnostic Testing Methods==
 
==Diagnostic Testing Methods==
  
Put your text here
+
*Complete blood count
 +
*Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy with trichrome reticulin stain
 +
*NGS panels including JAK2 gene analysis
 +
*Chromosome analysis and FISH
 +
*Serum erythropoietin levels.
  
 
==Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)==
 
==Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)==
  
Put your text here
+
''<u>Diagnosis</u>''<ref name=":0" />
 +
 
 +
*Major criteria
 +
**Hemoglobin >16.5 g/dL in men or > 16 g/dL in women; or hematocrit >49% in men or > 48% in women or increased red blood cell mass
 +
**Bone marrow tri-lineage proliferation with Pleomorphic mature megakaryocytes.
 +
**Presence of JAK2 V617F mutation or JAK2 exon 12 mutations.
 +
 
 +
*Minor criterion:
 +
 
 +
·        Subnormal serum erythropoietin level 
 +
 
 +
For the diagnosis either all major criteria or first two major criteria and minor criterion should be fulfilled.
 +
 
 +
''<u>Prognosis</u>''<ref name=":1" />
 +
 
 +
*Adverse factors for leukemic transformation
 +
**Advanced age
 +
**Leukocytosis
 +
**Abnormal karyotype (occur in progressive stages)
 +
**''AXL1, SRF2, IDH1, IDH2, RUNX1'' mutations.
 +
 
 +
*Adverse prognostic factors for thrombosis
 +
**Advanced age
 +
**History of thrombosis
 +
 
 +
''<u>Therapeutic implications</u>'' <ref name=":3" />
 +
 
 +
*Low risk (Age <60 years and no history of thrombosis)
 +
**Phlebotomy to maintain hematocrit below 45%
 +
**Low dose-aspirin
 +
 
 +
*High risk
 +
**In addition to phlebotomy and aspirin, cytoreductive therapy (hydroxyurea of peginterferon alfa-2a.)
 +
**For inadequate or loss of response with cytoreductive threapy: ruxolitinib or clinical trials
  
 
==Familial Forms==
 
==Familial Forms==
  
Put your text here
+
*Geographical clustering in Pennsylvania <ref>{{Cite journal|last=V|first=Seaman|last2=A|first2=Jumaan|last3=E|first3=Yanni|last4=B|first4=Lewis|last5=J|first5=Neyer|last6=P|first6=Roda|last7=M|first7=Xu|last8=R|first8=Hoffman|date=2009|title=Use of molecular testing to identify a cluster of patients with polycythemia vera in eastern Pennsylvania|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19190168/|language=en|pmid=19190168}}</ref>  and Quebec  <ref>{{Cite journal|last=M|first=Le|last2=Fm|first2=Ghazawi|last3=E|first3=Rahme|last4=A|first4=Alakel|last5=E|first5=Netchiporouk|last6=E|first6=Savin|last7=A|first7=Zubarev|last8=Sj|first8=Glassman|last9=D|first9=Sasseville|date=2019|title=Identification of significant geographic clustering of polycythemia vera cases in Montreal, Canada|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31381139/|language=en|pmid=31381139}}</ref>were observed
 +
*JAK2 46/1 haplotype has been suggested for genetic predisposition<ref>{{Cite journal|last=D|first=Olcaydu|last2=A|first2=Harutyunyan|last3=R|first3=Jäger|last4=T|first4=Berg|last5=B|first5=Gisslinger|last6=I|first6=Pabinger|last7=H|first7=Gisslinger|last8=R|first8=Kralovics|date=2009|title=A common JAK2 haplotype confers susceptibility to myeloproliferative neoplasms|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19287385/|language=en|pmid=19287385}}</ref>
 +
*A whole exome study on a multi-generation family from Finland suggest several candidate SNPs<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Eam|first=Hirvonen|last2=E|first2=Pitkänen|last3=K|first3=Hemminki|last4=La|first4=Aaltonen|last5=O|first5=Kilpivaara|date=2017|title=Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel candidate predisposition genes for familial polycythemia vera|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28427458/|language=en|doi=10.1186/s40246-017-0102-x|pmc=PMC5397753|pmid=28427458}}</ref>
 +
*As of July 2020, a known family with an unequivocal high penetrance mutation has not been documented.
  
 
==Other Information==
 
==Other Information==
Line 145: Line 206:
 
(use "Cite" icon at top of page)
 
(use "Cite" icon at top of page)
 
<references />
 
<references />
===EXAMPLE Book===
 
 
#Arber DA, et al., (2017). Acute myeloid leukaemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities, in World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, Revised 4th edition. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Arber DA, Hasserjian RP, Le Beau MM, Orazi A, and Siebert R, Editors. IARC Press: Lyon, France, p129-171.
 
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki>Primary authors will typically be those that initially create and complete the content of a page.  If a subsequent user modifies the content and feels the effort put forth is of high enough significance to warrant listing in the authorship section, please contact the CCGA coordinators (contact information provided on the homepage).  Additional global feedback or concerns are also welcome.
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki>Primary authors will typically be those that initially create and complete the content of a page.  If a subsequent user modifies the content and feels the effort put forth is of high enough significance to warrant listing in the authorship section, please contact the CCGA coordinators (contact information provided on the homepage).  Additional global feedback or concerns are also welcome.

Revision as of 19:37, 2 August 2020

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Primary Author(s)*

Gokce A. Toruner, MD, PhD

UT MD Anderson Cancer Center

Cancer Category/Type

Myeloproliferative neoplasms

Cancer Sub-Classification / Subtype

Polycythemia Vera

Definition / Description of Disease [1]

  • Polycythemia Vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN).
  • Increased red blood cell (RBC) production independent of normal regulation of erythropoiesis.
  • Proliferation of other myeloid cells such as granulocytes and megakaryocytes are also frequently observed (panmyelosis).
  • Very high majority of PV patients have JAK2 V617F or JAK2 exon 12 mutations.
  • Phases of PV
    • Polycythemic phase: Early phase characterized by increased hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels and increased RBC mass.
    • Post polycythemic myelofibrosis: Later phase associated bone marrow fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis (and cytopenias) and extramedullary hematopoiesis.[1]

Synonyms / Terminology

  • Polycythemia rubra vera
  • Proliferative polycythemia
  • Chronic erythema
  • Maladie de Vaquez

Epidemiology / Prevalence

  • Incidence rate: 1.8/100,000 in the US.
  • Slight male predominance.
  • Median age of diagnosis: 60 years, but it can occur any age.[2]

Clinical Features[1][3]

  • Insidious onset  of disease and PV is often discovered incidentally due to increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in a routine CBC
  • Non-specific symptoms due to hypertension and vascular issues resulting from increased viscosity of the blood
  • Frequent complaints: Headache, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, visual disturbances, pruritus, erythromelalgia
  • Frequent physical examination findings: Splenomegaly, facial plethora
  • About 20% of the cases have documented complications of arterial and venous thrombosis such as myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular events, deep venous thrombosis, and hepatic portal vein thrombosis.
  • May evolve into myelofibrosis, MDS or post PV blast phase (formerly known as acute leukemia)

Sites of Involvement [1]

  • Bone marrow is the major affected site.
  • Splenic and hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis can be observed in later stages.
  • Any organ can be damaged due to vascular involvement.

Morphologic Features [1]

Polycythemic phase

  • Hypercellularity (notable in subcortical marrow space)
  • Panmyelosis (with marked erythroid and megakaryocytic predominance)
  • Pleomorphic megakaryocytes
  • Decreased often absent iron deposits

Post polycythemic myelofibrosis phase

  • Grade 2-3 BM fibrosis
  • Decreased erythropoiesis (anemia) and granulopoiesis
  • Manifestation of myeloid metaplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis: Leukoeryhroblastosis, teardrop RBC, splenomegaly

Immunophenotype

No specific immunophenotypic characteristics

Chromosomal Rearrangements (Gene Fusions)

None

Characteristic Chromosomal Aberrations / Patterns

Cytogenetic abnormalities is present about 20% of the cases (see genomic gain/loss/LOH section). Associated with progression and adverse prognosis[4][5].

Genomic Gain/Loss/LOH

Frequent cytogenetic abnormalities are listed below[1].

Chromosome Number Gain/Loss/Amp/LOH Region
1 Gain 1q
8 Gain +8
9 Gain +9
20 Loss del(20q)

Gene Mutations (SNV/INDEL)[6]

  • JAK2 V617F mutations
    • Highly frequent, but not diagnostic for PV, as more than half of Essential Throbocythemia and Primary Myelofibrosis  have JAK2 V617F.
    • This mutation is located in the pseudokinase domain of the JAK2 protein
  • JAK2 exon 12 mutations
    • Located in the so called linked region (amino acids 536- 547) between the SRC2 homology (SH2) and pseudokinase domains.
    • Most of these mutations are in frame indels [6].
    • Associated with younger age, increased hemoglobulin and hematocrit levels and lower WBC compated to cases with JAK2 AK2 V617F mutations [7]
Gene Mutation Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor/Other Presumed Mechanism (LOF/GOF/Other; Driver/Passenger) Prevalence (COSMIC/TCGA/Other)
JAK2 V617F Oncogene GOF; Driver 95-97%
JAK2 Exon 12 mutations Oncogene GOF; Driver 3%

Other Mutations

Most frequent mutations other than JAK2 in PV are TET2 and ASXL1 [8][9].

Type Gene/Region/Other
Concomitant Mutations TET2, ASXL1, SH2B3, CEBPA, ZRSR2,S3FB1,CSF3R,KITSRSF2,IDH2,DNMT3A,SUZ12.SETB1,RUNX1.CBL,TP53,FLT3 [8][9]

Epigenomics (Methylation)

Methylation of promoter regions has not been documented, but mutations of genes important in epigenetic regulation are observed[8][9]

Genes and Main Pathways Involved

  • JAK2 is physically bound to homodimeric receptors: EPOR, MPL and G-CSFR and act as the catalytic part of these receptors upon the binding of the cytokine to the receptor.
  • JAK2 V617F mutation results in non-cytokine dependent constitutive phosphorylation and activation of the down-stream STAT molecules and Pl3K and MAPK pathways[6].

Diagnostic Testing Methods

  • Complete blood count
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy with trichrome reticulin stain
  • NGS panels including JAK2 gene analysis
  • Chromosome analysis and FISH
  • Serum erythropoietin levels.

Clinical Significance (Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Implications)

Diagnosis[1]

  • Major criteria
    • Hemoglobin >16.5 g/dL in men or > 16 g/dL in women; or hematocrit >49% in men or > 48% in women or increased red blood cell mass
    • Bone marrow tri-lineage proliferation with Pleomorphic mature megakaryocytes.
    • Presence of JAK2 V617F mutation or JAK2 exon 12 mutations.
  • Minor criterion:

·        Subnormal serum erythropoietin level 

For the diagnosis either all major criteria or first two major criteria and minor criterion should be fulfilled.

Prognosis[4]

  • Adverse factors for leukemic transformation
    • Advanced age
    • Leukocytosis
    • Abnormal karyotype (occur in progressive stages)
    • AXL1, SRF2, IDH1, IDH2, RUNX1 mutations.
  • Adverse prognostic factors for thrombosis
    • Advanced age
    • History of thrombosis

Therapeutic implications [7]

  • Low risk (Age <60 years and no history of thrombosis)
    • Phlebotomy to maintain hematocrit below 45%
    • Low dose-aspirin
  • High risk
    • In addition to phlebotomy and aspirin, cytoreductive therapy (hydroxyurea of peginterferon alfa-2a.)
    • For inadequate or loss of response with cytoreductive threapy: ruxolitinib or clinical trials

Familial Forms

  • Geographical clustering in Pennsylvania [10]  and Quebec [11]were observed
  • JAK2 46/1 haplotype has been suggested for genetic predisposition[12]
  • A whole exome study on a multi-generation family from Finland suggest several candidate SNPs[13]
  • As of July 2020, a known family with an unequivocal high penetrance mutation has not been documented.

Other Information

Put your text here

Links

Put your links here (use link icon at top of page)

References

(use "Cite" icon at top of page)

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  2. Rm, Shallis; et al. (2020). "Epidemiology of the classical myeloproliferative neoplasms: The four corners of an expansive and complex map". PMID 32517877 Check |pmid= value (help).
  3. Tefferi A. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of polycythemia vera https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-polycythemia-vera (last accessed 8/1/2020)
  4. 4.0 4.1 A, Tefferi; et al. (2019). "Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2019 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification and management". PMID 30281843.
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  7. 7.0 7.1 NCCN guidelines for myefoloproliferative neoplasms https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/mpn.pdf (last accessed 8/1/2020)
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  10. V, Seaman; et al. (2009). "Use of molecular testing to identify a cluster of patients with polycythemia vera in eastern Pennsylvania". PMID 19190168.
  11. M, Le; et al. (2019). "Identification of significant geographic clustering of polycythemia vera cases in Montreal, Canada". PMID 31381139.
  12. D, Olcaydu; et al. (2009). "A common JAK2 haplotype confers susceptibility to myeloproliferative neoplasms". PMID 19287385.
  13. Eam, Hirvonen; et al. (2017). "Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel candidate predisposition genes for familial polycythemia vera". doi:10.1186/s40246-017-0102-x. PMC 5397753. PMID 28427458.CS1 maint: PMC format (link)

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